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ѤҪԡ
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ʶԵ

: 4529127
й 16 ؤŷ ͹Ź
(quark) PDF
ѡ ѹآ
ʶҺѹ෤չ觪ҵ

     ͹Ҥѡ (fundamental particle) ͧСͺͧ͹ҤբҴ硡еªԴ ѡѹդͧСͺͧǵ͹õ͹ 6 Դ ЪԴ¡ (flavour) ѻ (up u) ǹ (down d) (charm c) ù (strange s) ͻ (top t) к͵ (bottom b) 觤졷 6 觵ҴͧШ 2 (up type) ջШ +2/3 ѻ зͻ ա͡ҧ (down type) ջШ -1/3 ǹ ù к͵

    ١鹷ֺʴ 鹻ʴҡ Ŵŧҡ仫

(GeV/c2)
Ш俿 (e)
u
ѻ
0.004
+2/3
d
ǹ
0.008
-1/3
c
1.5
+2/3
s
ù
0.15
-1/3
t
ͻ
176
+2/3
b
͵
4.7
-1/3

˵: c Ǣͧʧ e ҴШآͧ硵͹

      ͹Ҥõ͹йǵ͹ §ѹ ҳ 0.938 GeV/c2 ͧ֡ŧͧСͺ õ͹ Сͺ ѻ 2 ͹ҤѺǹ 1 ͹Ҥ ԴŨҡ§ 0.016 GeV/c2 ǹǵ͹ Сͺ鹨ҡѻ 1 ͹Ҥ Ѻǹ 2 ͹Ҥ ԴŨҡ§ 0.020 GeV/c2 ͻҳ 2 繵ͧõ͹йǵ͹ҹ 駹ŷա 98 繵 ǹ˹ٻͧѧҹŹͧ ǹ˭繾ѧҹѡִͧ˹ ҧѹ ͧ͹Ҥ 㹹ʴçҧ (strong nuclear force) 繻ѹçش

     㹺ôç鹰ҹ 4 Դ㹸ҵ çա 3 Դ çҧ͹ (weak nuclear force) çзӵ͡ѹ͹Ҥ ͹Ҥ ش͡仨ҡ Դ¡ѹѧǻ͹Ҥյ͡ çԴҤç俿 (electromagnetic force) еçִ˹ǡѹ ҧʡѺ硵͹ ǹ¹͡е ͻԡ ջШ俿Һǡź Ǣͧͧ çԴش çǧ (gravity force) ç֧ٴѹ ҧçç·ش ͧҡǢͧѺççشѧ 㹸ҵԨ辺 ҧ 繡 2 ͹Ҥ¡ի͹ (meson) ͡ 3 ͹Ҥ¡ ͹ (baryon) 觷ի͹͹ժ¡ѹ δ͹ (hadron)

    ɮաʵ͹ (quantum mechanics) ֡͹Ҥͧʵ͹ҤءԴաعͺ᡹عӹͧǡѺšعͺͧ ͹ҤءԴ֧ѵ˹¡ԧѴͧԺѵԡѴ͡ ŢʻԹ (spin number) 2 ŢʻԹŢӹǹ仵ʶԵ-͹䵹 (Bose-Einstein statistics) ¡͹Ҥ㹡⺫͹ (boson) ͤԴʶԵԹ ѵ¹ Ҷ (Satyendra Nath Bose) ͹Ҥ㹡⺫͹ѡѹա ⿵͹ŢʻԹҡѺ +1 ա˹繡ŢʻԹǹ仵ʶԵ-á (Fermi-Dirac statistics) ͹Ҥ㹡¡ ͹ (fermion) ͧ͢͹ (Enrico Fermi) 鹤ԴʶԵԪԴ Ф졡١Ѵ㹡͹ͧ Ҥ졡ŢʻԹ +1/2 ǹ졡ҧŢʻԹ -1/2 ͹Ҥ㹡͹ѡѹա 硵͹ ŢʻԹ +1/2

    ͧҡ͹ǡѺ硵͹ ֧ͧ仵ѡáմѹ (Pauli exclusion principle) (óբͧ硵͹ աèӡѴӹǹͧ硵͹Ѵ§繪 е Ъӹǹ) ¡óբͧҤŢ͹ (internal quantum number) ¡ (color) մ¡ѹ 3 ᴧ йԹ

Physicist ȵ觡ä鹤Ҥ˭ PDF

          ͹ҤŰҹ ԵШѡ ѹѹҧ е˹·硷ش ѺѡɳФ¡ѺкШѡ ͧ ˹¢ͧѡ ҧ عͺǧҷԵº͹š͹㹪鹵ҧ عͺ з عͧѡšѧѡɳ蹹 к硷شѺк˭ش Ѻդѹѹ ҧһҴ èм»ѭ ͧѡŢ͹ …


          ҡ˧˹Ңͧͧ㹤׹͹״ оѺǧǵҧ ҡ Դ֡ҧ ѹ ҧ蹪Ѻ§ §͡͡ ҧʹѡѺѡṺ͡ ҧͽѹ֧ä˹ աҡ˹ ͧͧ Һš㺹 ѧա˹ ЫѺ֧˭ͧѡ ֡ѧԴ ͹§ǡШ ѧ׹ͧ˹ӹҨѹ˭ ҷҺ ѹ

          ͹Ѻ仫ѡҳ 6-7 շ ͹鹼ѧ¹ .2 龺Ѻ˭ ѹһҴ ͧͧӤ׹ ҡҧ÷ȹͧ 11 㹵͹ ͧѹѹ ѹⴴ¹Ѻҹ ¤ѧԭ 㹢зѧ ¹ͧ仴٪ͧ öѹԧ ¡ ÷ȹѹ öѹԧ Ǽ͡٪ͧ 11 Һ͡ ʧҡǧǵҧ Թҧѧšҹ鹵ͧҡ»ʧ 蹤 ʧͧԹҧ¡һաҨҶ֧š ѧ ˧˹ҴٴǺͧ ǧǷ繹Ѩغѹ Ҿͧ¡һշ 㹻ѨغѹǧǴǧ ҨԴ ǡ Դ֡͵ҹҷѹ ʴ Ҥ׹ͧ ٴǺͧ оǧʹյ ѧҡ觵֡ͧ ҹ ֡仡ѺʹյҹҢͧѡźͧ Ӷѧҧ㨼Ҩ֧Ѵ ҹҨ繨شԴͧѡҡͧ ҡҡ ?

          龺ҿԡҢԪҷѺӵͺش ֧蹷¹ԡҵ . ͢鹪 . ͺ 繹ѡ¹çþѲդöɷҧԷʵ෤
(Ƿ.) ʡѺҡ 㹡÷ lab ҡ Ǽ֡ҡ÷ lab ѹѴѺ֡ǹǢͧ ͼԴҴ㹡÷ lab ѹ 2+2 ҳ 4 ҡѺ 4 繤⪤բͧ͹ԴҤĴ͹͹ .4 Ҥ¢ͧçþѲѨҾ ҧԷʵѺǪ ͹Ѻ觷ҹҹ 蹡 ÷ lab Ѻ дɷ Ԫҡ ͡çҹԨµҧ 觷龺ͧ lab ͧҨ ͧشҴ յ÷ҧԪҡҡ

          㹵͹ Ҩٴ֧ History of Physics Ҩٴ֧ҿԡӴѺҧ Ѻ ÷ͧ ͧ ͹ͧԫ Ҷ֧ǵѹ ŵѹ ૹ ԧ п¹ ʶ֧ػǤԴѹ֡駢ͧѡԡФ ͹˹觷зѺҡ Ҩѧ դ¶ǵѹ "֧鹾觷˭ҧ Ҩ繡͹ -çǧ Ť" ǵѹͺ "蹡м׹躹ͧѡ öͧ觵ҧ ҧ" ׹躹 ͧѡ ¶֧÷֡ҧҹԨ¢ͧ ǵʹҹԨ¢ͧռŴ觢 Ǽʶ֧Ӿٴ ͧǵѹ աѹ ͼͧ÷¹çҹҧԡɮ 駷ѧ¤ҧҹԵʵ пԡ 鹰ҹҡ 蹡 ͹ѧҢͧѡ Ҩ֧֡ҤԵʵ пԡ鹰ҹ 仡͹ ѡѺ÷ lab ˭ش 㹪ԵǡѺͧͧС͹㹷Һʧ ѹʹء öҹç

          ɮդ͹觷ҷѺҧ 龺ѺҨ ͧ͹ҤբҴ дѺ硵͹繤 ä蹢ͧԧ֡Ҿĵԡͧѹ ͡ɮԹõ 鹷ҧ ͧ¹֡ҷҧԹͧѹ ҷǤԴѴ駡Ѻѭӹ֡ҧ ҵͧԹҡ ҧ٧ش ͹Ѻҷͧšաš˹觷š ʴ йҵ 觵͹ѧç "֡Ѳҡ ͧɮդ͹" ʡѺǤԴҧԵʵ˭ ֧֡ͧ ͧǤԴͧ ѡԷʵҧ Ѳҷɮդ͹ ͷѡѹ˹觼ҧǤԴͧҺҧ

          Թҡ÷˭ Եʵ§ ѧö͸ԺͧǷ繾鹰ҹͧԵ кǹ׺ѹ ԴҢ ѧö͸ԺҧШҧ ѹԴҧ աҼѡѹ §ҡкǹ Թҧ èͧ DNA 㹪ǧԹ ͹Դ 觵ͫ աкǹҧ ͧ蹹 ѧ繤Ӷ ҷҷ㹻Ѩغѹ ԡö ֡Ҿĵԡͧ觷硷ش ֧觷˭شдѺѡ кժԵ Ѻ˹ 鹰ҹشͧժԵ¡鹡ѺվĵԡһҴйʹ觡 ùӨԹҡ÷˭ ФԵʵ§ Ѻ֡кժԵ֡ҾĵԡͧкժԵ ͧȨѺѾҨҧ жҡ зöʶ֧˭ͧԵ ԭҳШѡ ä觷ѺشͧԵШѡŹ ö ¿ԡ§Ң ͧ¤ªҵ ȵ觡ä鹤Ҥ˭ѧҶ֧ ͧ÷˹ 㹼ҹ …

          աҹеͧ׹躹ѡ

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ԭҵջ 2 Էʵ .ʧҹԹ
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ѧ(Radiation) СѹҾѧ (Radioactivity) PDF
ѧ(Radiation) СѹҾѧ (Radioactivity)
  • ѧ繾ѧҹ Ŵ͡ ҡⷻѧ Ҩ͹Ҥ ͤ俿 վѧҹᵡҧѹ 鹡ѺԴͧⷻѧ
  • ҳͧѧ ѵҡûŴѧ ¡ ѹҾѧ (activity) ͧ鹡Դ


  • ѹҾѧ ˹Ѵ ຤ (Bq) ҡѺӹǹѧ Ŵ͡ҵԹҷ
  • ˹ѴҴ˭ ¡ (Curie) ҡѺ 3.7x1010 Bq
  • ûŴѧ 鹡Դѧ աѹҾŴŧ Ẻ๹ դҤµ 繤੾Тͧⷻ
  • ѧſ (alpha radiation) a-ray ͹ҤջШ +2 Сͺ 2 õ͹ 2 ǵ͹ ͹Ѻʢͧҵ ⷻѧ Ŵ͹Ҥſ Ŵŧ 4 ˹ ջШŴŧ 2e
  • ѧպյ (beta radiation) b-ray դسѵ ǡѺ硵͹ Сͺ ѧպյҪԴШغǡ (+b-ray) лШź (-b-ray)
  • ⷻѧշŴѧպյ ԴШغǡ (+b-ray) ջШŴŧ 1
  • ⷻѧ Ŵѧպյ ԴШź (-b-ray) ջШ 1e
  • ѧ (g -ray) 繤俿 ѧҹ٧ 觨лŴ¨ҡⷻѧ дѺѧҹ٧ дѺѧҹŧ зʶҡ
 
ҹ...
ⷻ (Isotope) ⷻѧ (Radioisotope) PDF
(Isotope) ⷻѧ (Radioisotope)
  • ͹Ҥ㹹 õ͹ йǵ͹ ¡ Ǥ͹ (nucleon)
  • ӹǹõ͹ ¡ Ţе (atomic number, Z)
  • ӹǹǵ͹ ¡ Ţǵ͹ (neutron number)
  • ӹǹǤ͹ 繼ͧ ӹǹõ͹ Ѻǵ͹ ¡ Ţ (mass number) е (atomic mass, A)
  • ѭѡɳҧ ʴѭѡɳͧҵ (X) Ţ (A) Ţе (Z)

  • ҵиҵ ᵡҧѹӹǹõ͹ Ţе
  • иҵب ӹǹõ͹ Шӹǹǵ͹੾ҹ зʶ
  • ͹ 繸ҵط 6 õ͹ е 12 ʴ 6 ǵ͹
  • ͡ਹ 繸ҵط 8 õ͹ е 16 ʴ 8 ǵ͹
  • ҵتԴǡѹ Ҩŵҧѹ ͧҡӹǹǵ͹ҡѹ ¡ ⷻѹ
  • ਹ 3ⷻ 1H, 2H 3H
  • ⷻ㹸ҵ ǹ˭ ⷻʶ (stable isotope)
  • ⷻѧ (radioisotope) ⷻ ʶ ͧҡ дѺѧҹ٧
  • ⷻѧ лѺ ʶ »Ŵ¾ѧҹ͡ ٻͧѧ
  • ѧշŴ͡ Ҩ繤俿 ѧ (gamma ray) ͹Ҥ ѧſ (alpha ray) ѧպյ (beta ray)
  • Ҩӹǹõ͹ ͨӹǹǵ͹ ʨʶ 觨лѺʶ »ŴŻѧ͡
  • Ҩӹǹǵ͹Թ ж١¹õ͹ ѧպյһШź ๡ҵ͹͡

  • Ҩӹǹõ͹Թ ж١¹繹ǵ͹ ѧպյһШغǡ Ե͹͡ ҨѺ硵͹ǧ Ѻ

  • ⷻѧ աѹҾ (activity) Ŵŧ Ẻ๹
  • A = A0e-lt
  • ҷѹҾŴŧ ͤ˹ ¡ 觪Ե (half life) 繤Ҥ੾ ͧⷻ ͡ਹ-19 դ觪Ե 27 Թҷ ͹-14 դ觪Ե 5,730

͹Ҥ PDF

͹Ҥ

ѡ ѹآ

     ͹Ҥ (particle) ҨеԹ¶֧ ǹ (little part) ѧ͹Ҥ㹤· ¶֧觷բҴҡ褧֧֡蹼ͧ 㹷ҧԷʵͧ͹ҤǹҡСͺѹ ֡ š е ͧ繴µ Ҩͧ¡ͧŷȹ ͧŷȹ硵͹ػóҾԴҧ зѧŧ仡ҹա ͹ҤҧԴ ѧͧͪԴ㴨ѺҾµç §٨·ҧԧ

ººҴͧ͹Ҥͧҡ (˹͹ 10-6 )

͹Ҥ㹷ҧѡ֧֡ š е 硵͹

    㹷ҧԡѡ֧֡͹Ҥ¢ͧе (subatomic particle) Ҩ͹ҤŰҹ (elementary particle) ͹ҤͧСͺͧе 硵͹ õ͹ йǵ͹ ͹ҤСͺ鹨ҡ͹Ҥա Ż͹ ի͹

   ººҴͧе ʫ觻Сͺ鹨ҡõ͹ (p) йǵ͹ (n) (q) ͧСͺͧõ͹йǵ͹ ʴҴͧ硵͹

    㹷ҧй֧֡͹Ҥѧշ١Ŵ͡Ҩҡʴءѹѧ ѧſ (ʢͧе) ѧպյ (硵͹⾫Ե͹) ǵ͹з͹

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