University Physics 7 th EDITION SEAR/ZEMANSKY/YOUNG  PART II ไฟฟ้า
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University Physics PART I กลศาสตร์

7 th EDITION

SEAR/ZEMANSKY/YOUNG

สารบัญ  PART I กลศาสตร์

 

หน้า

PART ONE
MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTALS 1
1  
UNIT , PHYSICAL QUANTITIES , AND VECTORS 3
1-1 Introduction 3
1-2 Standards and units 4
1-3 Unit consistency and conversions 7
1-4 Precision and significant figures 8
1-5 Estimates and orders of magnitude 9
1-6 Vectors and vector addition 10
1-7 Components of vectors 13
1-8 Unit vectors 15
1-9 Products of vectors 16
  Summary 19
2  
MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 25
2-1 Average velocity 25
2-2 Instantaneous velocity 26
2-3 Average and instantaneous acceleration 28
2-4 Motion with constant acceleration 32
2-5 Velocity and coordinate by integration 34
2-6 Freely falling bodies 36
2-7 Relative velocity 39
  Summary 41
3  
MOTION IN PLANE 49
3-1 Average and instantaneous velocity 49
3-2 Average and instantaneous acceleration 51
3-3 Components of acceleration 51
3-4 Projectile motion 54
3-5 Circular motion 61
3-6 Relative velocity 63
  Summary 65
4  
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTIONS 71
4-1 Force 71
4-2 Equilibrium and Newton's first law 74
4-3 Mass and Newton's second law 75
4-4 Systems of units 78
4-5 Mass and weight 80
4-6 Newton's third law 81
4-7 Applications of Newton's laws 83
4-8 Inertial frames of reference 85
  Summary 86
5  
APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS-I 90
5-1 Force in nature 90
5-2 Contact forces and friction 92
5-3 Equlibrium of a particle 96
5-4 Applications of Newton's second law 101
  Summary 109
6  
APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS-II 119
6-1 Force in circular motion 119
6-2 Motion in a vertical circle 123
6-3 Newton's law of gravitation 125
6-4 Gravitational field 129
6-5 Satellite motion 130
6-6 Effect of the earth's rotation on g 134
  Summary 137
PART TWO
MECHANICS-FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS
7  
WORK AND ENERGY 145
7-1 Conservation of energy 145
7-2 Work 146
7-3 Work done by a varying force 148
7-4 Work and kinetic energy 152
7-5 Gravitation potential energy 154
7-6 Elastic potential energy 161
7-7 Conservative and dissipative forces 165
7-8 Internal work and energy 166
7-9 Power 168
7-10 Automotive power 170
  Summary 172
8  
IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM 182
8-1 Impulse and momentum 182
8-2 Conservation of momentum 187
8-3 Collisions 189
8-4 Inelastic collisions 190
8-5 Elastic collisions 192
8-6 Recoil 196
8-7 Center of mass 197
8-8 Rocket ptopulsion 199
  Summary 202
9  
ROTATION MOTION 210
9-1 Angular velocity 210
9-2 Angular acceleration 211
9-3 Rotation with constant angular acceleration 212
9-4 Rotation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration 213
9-5 Kinetic energy of rotation 215
9-6 Moment-of-inertia calculations 218
9-7 Parallel-axis theorem 221
9-8 Torque 222
9-9 Torque and angular acceleration 224
9-10 Work and power in rotational motion 227
9-11 Rotation about a moving axis 229
9-12 Angular momentum and angular impulse 231
9-13 Conservation of angular momentum 233
9-14 Vector representation of angular quantities 235
  Summary 238
10  
EQUILIBRIUM OF A RIGID BODY 249
10-1 The second condition for equilibrium 249
10-2 Center of gravity 250
10-3 Examples 252
10-4 Couples 256
  Summary 257
11  
PERIODIC MOTION 263
11-1 Basic concepts 263
11-2 Equations of simple harmonic motion 265
11-3 Circle of reference 273
11-4 Angular simple harmonic motion 275
11-5 The simple pendulum 276
11-6 The physical pendulum 277
11-7 Damped oscillations 279
11-8 Forced oscillations 280
  Summary 282
PART THREE
MECHANICS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
12  
ELASTICITY 291
12-1 Tensile stress and strain 291
12-2 Bulk stress and strain 294
12-3 Shear stress and strain 297
12-4 Elasticity and plasticity 299
  Summary 301
13  
FLUID MECHANICS 306
13-1 Density 306
13-2 Pressure in a fluid 307
13-3 Buoyancy 311
13-4 Surface tension 313
13-5 Fluid flow 317
13-6 Bernoulli's equation 320
13-7 Application of Bernoulli's equation 322
13-8 Viscosity 325
13-9 Turbulence 329
  Summary 331
14  
TEMPERATURE AND EXPANSION 340
14-1 Temperature and thermal equilibrium 340
14-2 Thermometers 342
14-3 The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales 344
14-4 The Kelvin and Rankines scales 346
14-5 Thermal expansion 347
14-6 Thermal stresses 351
  Summary 352
15  
QUANTITY OF HEAT 357
15-1 Heat transfer 357
15-2 Quantity of heat 358
15-3 Heat capacity 359
15-4 Measurement of hrat capacity 362
15-5 Phase changes 363
15-6 Examples 367
  Summary 369
16  
MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER 374
16-1 Conduction 374
16-2 Convection 379
16-3 Radiation 381
16-4 Solar energy and resource conservation 383
  Summary 384
17  
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 389
17-1 Equation of state 389
17-2 Ideal gases 390
17-3 PV=diagrams 394
17-4 Phase diagrams , Triple point , critical point 395
  Summary 399
18  
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 403
18-1 Energy , heat , and work 403
18-2 Work done during volume changes 404
18-3 Heat transfer during volume changes 406
18-4 Internal energy and the first law 408
18-5 Thermodynamic processes 412
18-6 Internal energy of an ideal gas 413
18-7 Heat capacity of an ideal gas 414
18-8 Adibatic processes for an ideal gas 417
  Summary 419
19  
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 424
19-1 Directions of thermodynamic processes 424
19-2 Heat engines 426
19-3 Internal-combustion engines 429
19-4 Refrigerators 431
19-5 The second law of thermodynamics 433
19-6 The Carnot cycle 435
19-7 Entropy 440
19-8 The Kelvin temperature scale 444
19-9 Energy conversion 445
  Summary 447
20  
MOLECULAR PROPERTIES OF MATTER 451
20-1 Molecular structure of matter 451
20-2 Avogadro's number 453
20-3 Molecular basis of properties of matter 454
20-4 Kinetic-molecular theory of an ideal gas 455
20-5 Molar heat capacity of a gas 460
20-6 Distribution of molecular speeds 462
20-7 Crystals 464
20-8 Heat capacity of crystals 467
  Summary 468
PART FOUR
WAVES
21  
MECHANICAL WAVES 475
21-1 Mechanical wave phenomena 475
21-2 Periodic waves 476
24-3 Mathematical description of a wave 478
24-4 Speed of a trasverse wave 481
21-5 Speed of a longitudinal wave 486
21-6 Sound waves in gases 489
21-7 Energy in wave motion 490
  Summary 492
22  
ViBRATING BODIES 496
22-1 Boundary conditions for a string 496
22-2 Superposition and standing waves 498
22-3 Normal modes of a string 500
22-4 Longitudinal standing waves 503
22-5 Normal modes of organ pipes 504
22-6 Interference of waves 505
22-7 Resonance 506
  Summary 508
23  
ACOUSTIC PHENOMENA 512
23-1 Sound waves 512
23-2 Intensity 514
23-3 Beats 517
23-4 The Doppler effect 518
  Summary 522

สารบัญ  PART II  ไฟฟ้า

25  
THE ELECTRIC FIELD 546
25-1 Electric field and electrical forces 546
25-2 Electric-field calculations 551
25-3 Field lines 556
25-4 Gauss's law 557
25-5 Applications of Gauss's law 561
25-6 Charges on conductors 566
  Summary 568
26  
ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL 575
26-1 Electrical potential energy 575
26-2 Potential 580
26-3 Calculation of potentials 583
26-4 Equipotential surfaces 587
26-5 Potential gradient 589
26-6 The Milikan oil-drop experiment 591
26-7 The electronvolt 593
26-8 The cathode-ray tube 594
  Summary 597
27  
CAPACITANCE AND DIELECTRICS 604
27-1 Capacitors 604
27-2 The parallel-plate capacitor 605
27-3 Capacitors in series and parallel 607
27-4 Energy of a charged capacitor 609
27-5 Effect of a dielectric 611
27-6 Molecular model of induced charge 615
27-7 Gauss's law in dielectrics 617
  Summary 618
28  
CURRENT , RESISTANCE , AND ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE 625
28-1 Current 625
28-2 Resistivity 628
28-3 Resistance 630
28-4 Electromotive force and circuits 632
28-5 Current-voltage relations 639
28-6 Energy and power in electric circuits 640
28-7 Theory of metallic conduction 644
  Summary 646
29  
DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS 653
29-1 Resistors in series and parallel 653
29-2 Kirchhoff's rules 656
29-3 Electrical instruments 659
29-4 The R-C series circuit 662
29-5 Displacement current 666
29-6 Power distribution systems 667
  Summary 670
PART SIX
ELECTRODYNAMICS
30  
MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MAGNETIC FORCES 683
30-1 Magnetism 683
30-2 Magnetic field 684
30-3 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux 688
30-4 Motion of charged particles in a magnetic field 690
30-5 Thomson's measurement of e/m 692
30-6 Isotopes and mass spectroscopy 693
30-7 Magnetic force on a conductor 695
30-8 Force and torque on a current loop 697
30-9 The direct-current motor 702
30-10 The Hall effect 703
  Summary 704
31  
SOURCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD 714
31-1 Magnetic field of a moving charge 714
31-2 Magnetic field of a current element 717
31-3 Magnetic field of a long straight conductor 719
31-4 Force between parallel conductors 721
31-5 Magnetic field of a circular loop 722
31-6 Ampere's law 724
31-7 Applications of Ampere's law 726
31-8 Magnetic materials 728
31-9 Magnetic field and displacement current 730
  Summary 732
32  
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 742
32-1 Induction phenomena 742
32-2 Motional electromotive force 743
32-3 Faraday's law 748
32-4 Induced electric fields 752
32-5 Lenz's law 754
32-6 Eddy currents 756
32-7 Maxwell's equations 757
  Summary 759
33  
INDUCTANCE 767
33-1 Mutual inductance 767
33-2 Self-inductance 769
33-3 Energy in an inductor 771
33-4 The R-L circuit 773
33-5 The L-C circuit 775
33-6 The L-R-C circuit 778
  Summary 780
34  
ALTERNATING CURRENTS 788
34-1 ac sources and phasors 788
34-2 Resistance , inductance , and capacitance 789
34-3 The L-R-C series circuit 793
34-4 Average and root-mean-square values 797
34-5 Power in ac circuits 798
34-6 Series resonance 800
34-7 Parallel resonance 803
34-8 Transformers 804
  Summary 806
35  
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 813
35-1 Introduction 813
35-2 Speed of electromagnetic wave 815
35-3 Energy in electromagnetic waves 817
35-4 Electromagnetic waves in matter 820
35-5 Sinusoidal waves 821
35-6 Standing waves 824
35-7 The electromagnetic spectrum 826
35-8 Radiation from an antenna 828
  Summary 829
PART SEVEN
OPTICS
36  
THE NATURE AND PROPAGATION OF LIGHT 837
36-1 Nature of light 837
36-2 Sources of light 838
36-3 The speed of light 839
36-4 Waves , wave fronts , and rays 840
36-5 Reflection and refraction 841
36-6 Total internal reflection 845
36-7 Dispersion 847
36-8 Polarization 848
36-9 Polarizing filters 850
36-10 Sacttering of light 854
36-11 Circular and elliptical polarization 855
36-12 Huygens' principle 857
  Summary 860
37  
IMAGES FORMED BY A SINGLE SURFACE 868
37-1 Reflection at a plane surface 868
37-2 Reflection at a spherical surface 870
37-3 Focus and focal length 874
37-4 Graphical methods 875
37-5 Refraction at a plane surface 877
37-6 Refraction at a spherical surface 879
  Summary 882
38  
LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 887
38-1 The thin lens 887
38-2 Diverging lenses 889
38-3 Graphical methods 890
38-4 Images as objects 893
38-5 Lens aberrations 895
38-6 The eye 897
38-7 Defects of vision 898
38-8 The magnifier 899
38-9 The camera 900
38-10 The Projector 901
38-11 The compound microscope 902
38-12 Telescopes 903
  Summary 905
39  
INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION 913
39-1 Interference and coherent sources 913
39-2 Two-source interference 917
39-3 Intensity distribution in interference patterns 919
39-4 Interference in thin films 922
39-5 The Michelson interferometer 926
39-6 Fresnel diffraction 928
39-7 Fraunhofer diffraction from a single slit 930
39-8 The diffraction grating 934
39-9 X-ray diffraction 938
39-10 Circular apertures and resolving power 939
39-11 Holography 943
  Summary 945
PART EIGHT
MODERN PHYSICS
40  
RELATIVISTIC MECHANICS 955
40-1 Invariance of physical laws 955
40-2 Relative nature of simultaneity 958
40-3 Relativity of time 958
40-4 Relativity of length 961
40-5 The Lorentz transformation 963
40-6 Momentum 966
40-7 Work and energy 967
40-8 Invariance 970
40-9 The Doppler effect 971
40-10 Relativity and newtonian mechanics 973
  Summary 974
41  
PHOTON , ELECTRON , AND ATOMS 980
41-1 Emission and absorption of light 980
44-2 The photoelectric effect 982
41-3 Line spectra 985
41-4 Energy levels 988
41-5 Atomic spectra 989
41-6 The laser 992
41-7 Continuous spectra 994
41-8 X-ray production and scattering 996
  Summary 1002
42  
QUANTUM MECHANICS 1007
42-1 The Bohr atom 1007
42-2 Wave nature of particles 1012
42-3 The electron microscope 1016
42-4 Probability and uncertainty 1019
42-5 Wave functions 1024
42-6 The Zeeman effect 1026
42-7 Electron spin 1028
  Summary 1030
43  
ATOM , MOLECULES , AND SOLIDS 1036
43-1 The exclusion principle 1036
43-2 Atomic structure 1039
43-3 Diatomic molecules 1041
43-4 Molecule spectra 1043
43-5 Structure of solids 1045
43-6 Properties of solids 1047
43-7 Band theory of solids 1049
43-8 Semiconductors 1051
43-9 Semiconductor devices 1052
43-10 Superconductivity 1055
  Summary 1056
44  
NUCLEAR AND HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS 1060
44-1 The nuclear atom 1060
44-2 Properties of nuclei 1062
44-3 Nuclear stability 1067
44-4 Radioactive transformations 1069
44-5 Nuclear reactions 1074
44-6 Nuclear fission 1076
44-7 Nuclear fusion 1079
44-8 Particle accelerators 1081
44-9 Fundamental particles 1084
44-10 High-energy physics 1086
  Summary 1091

APPENDIXES

A The international system of units 1121
B Useful mathematical relations 1124
C The Greek alphabet 1126
D Periodic table of the elements 1127
E Unit conversion factors 1128
F Numerical constants 1129

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

INDEX

 



 
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